The film begins with aviation engineer Barnes Wallis Michael Redgrave developing a bouncing bomb. This is why the bouncing bombs — which in real life were cylindrical — are spherical in the film. Harris remains a controversial figure today , particularly for his involvement in — and justification of — the bombing of Dresden.
A squadron is formed under wing commander Guy Gibson Richard Todd and his unfortunately named black labrador. There has been talk of Lord of the Rings director Peter Jackson remaking The Dam Busters , though the project seems to have stalled for now.
The new film-makers apparently considered renaming the dog something less offensive, such as Trigger or Digger, or referring to it as Nigsy — a diminutive that Gibson himself sometimes used. It has been suggested that the N-word was less incendiary in Britain during the second world war than it was in the United States , where abolitionists objected strongly to it from the early 19th century.
It would be a mistake to imagine it was inoffensive, though. Like other racial epithets, the N-word was always used in the context of belittlement and frequently as abuse. Of the 1, or so people killed by the flooding, more than 1, turned out to be forced labour camp inmates and prisoners of war — mostly Ukrainian, Dutch, French and Belgian. Three men who baled out of planes that were shot down were taken prisoner by the Germans Technology. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics Film Reel history. Drama films Biopics blogposts. Reuse this content.
The Dam Busters — Destroying Nazi Infrastructure - History
Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Wallis's bomb itself was first tested at the Elan Valley Reservoirs. The squadron took delivery of the bombs on 13 May, after the final tests on 29 April. Hopgood; and the squadron bombing leader, Flight Lieutenant Bob Hay. The rest of the crews were told at a series of briefings the following day, which began with a briefing of pilots, navigators and bomb-aimers at about midday. Formation No. Nigger was the name of Gibson's dog, a black labrador retriever that had been run over and killed on the morning of the attack.
The aircraft used two routes, carefully avoiding known concentrations of flak , and were timed to cross the enemy coast simultaneously. The first aircraft, those of Formation No. Flight Sergeant George Chalmers, radio operator on "O for Orange" , looked out through the astrodome and was astonished to see that his pilot was flying towards the target along a forest's firebreak , below treetop level. The first casualties were suffered soon after reaching the Dutch coast.
After the completion of the raid Gibson sympathised with Rice, telling him how he had also nearly lost his bomb to the sea. Barlow and Byers crossed the coast around the island of Texel. Byers was shot down by flak shortly afterwards, crashing into the Waddenzee.
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The bomb was thrown clear of the crash and was examined intact by Heinz Schweizer. Hopgood's aircraft was hit by flak as it made its low-level run and was caught in the blast of its own bomb, crashing shortly afterwards when a wing disintegrated. Three crew members successfully abandoned the aircraft, but only two survived. Subsequently, Gibson flew his aircraft across the dam to draw the flak away from Martin's run. Martin P for Popsie bombed third; his aircraft was damaged, but made a successful attack.
The Eder Valley was covered by heavy fog, but the dam was not defended with anti-aircraft positions as the difficult topography of the surrounding hills was thought to make an attack virtually impossible. With approach so difficult the first aircraft, Shannon's, made six runs before taking a break. Maudslay Z for Zebra then attempted a run but the bomb struck the top of the dam and the aircraft was severely damaged in the blast.
Shannon made another run and successfully dropped his bomb. The final bomb of the formation, from Knight's aircraft N for Nut , breached the dam. The Sorpe dam was the one least likely to be breached. It was a huge earthen dam, unlike the two concrete-and-steel gravity dams that were attacked successfully. This attack differed from the previous ones in two ways: the 'Upkeep' bomb was not spun, and due to the topography of the valley the approach was made along the length of the dam, not at right angles over the reservoir.
McCarthy's plane was on its own when it arrived over the Sorpe Dam at hours, and realised the approach was even more difficult than expected: the flight path led over a church steeple in the village of Langscheid , located on the hillcrest overlooking the dam. With only seconds to go before the bomber had to pull up, to avoid hitting the hillside at the other end of the dam, the bomb aimer George Johnson had no time to correct the bomb's height and heading.
McCarthy made nine attempted bombing runs before Johnson was satisfied. The 'Upkeep' bomb was dropped on the tenth run.
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The bomb exploded but when he turned his Lancaster to assess the damage, it turned out that only a section of the crest of the dam had been blown off; the main body of the dam remained. Three of the reserve aircraft had been directed to the Sorpe Dam. Burpee S for Sugar never arrived, and it was later determined that the plane had been shot down while skirting the Gilze-Rijen airfield.
Brown F for Freddie reached the Sorpe Dam: in the increasingly dense fog, after 7 runs, Brown conferred with his bomb aimer and dropped incendiary devices on either side of the valley, which ignited a fire which subsequently lifted the fog enough to drop a direct hit on the eighth run. The bomb cracked but failed to breach the dam. Anderson Y for York never arrived having been delayed by damage to his rear turret and dense fog which made his attempts to find the target impossible. The remaining two bombers were then sent to secondary targets, with Ottley C for Charlie being shot down en route to the Lister Dam.
Townsend O for Orange eventually dropped his bomb at the Ennepe Dam without harming it. There is some evidence that Townsend might have attacked the Bever Dam by mistake rather than the Ennepe Dam. In addition, the Wupperverband authority responsible for the Bever Dam is said to have recovered the remains of a "mine"; and Paul Keiser, a year-old soldier on leave at his home close to the Bever Dam, reported a bomber making several approaches to the dam and then dropping a bomb that caused a large explosion and a great pillar of flame.
In the book The Dambusters' Raid , author John Sweetman suggests Townsend's report of the moon's reflecting on the mist and water is consistent with an attack that was heading to the Bever Dam rather than to the Ennepe Dam, given the moon's azimuth and altitude during the bombing attacks. Sweetman also points out that the Ennepe-Wasserverband authority was adamant that only a single bomb was dropped near the Ennepe Dam during the entire war, and that this bomb fell into the woods by the side of the dam, not in the water, as in Townsend's report.
Finally, members of Townsend's crew independently reported seeing a manor house and attacking an earthen dam, which is consistent with the Bever Dam rather than the Ennepe Dam.
The main evidence supporting the hypothesis of an attack of the Ennepe Dam is Townsend's post-flight report that he attacked the Ennepe Dam on a heading of degrees magnetic. Assuming that the heading was incorrect, all other evidence points toward an attack on the Bever Dam. Townsend reported difficulty in finding his dam, and in his post-raid report he complained that the map of the Ennepe Dam was incorrect. With the early-morning fog that filled the valleys, it would be understandable for him to have mistaken the two reservoirs. On the way back, flying again at treetop level, two more Lancasters were lost.
The damaged aircraft of Maudslay was struck by flak near Netterden , and Young's A for Apple was hit by flak north of IJmuiden and crashed into the North Sea just off the coast of the Netherlands.
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Eleven bombers began landing at Scampton at hours, with Gibson returning at The last of the survivors, Townsend's bomber, landed at Air Chief Marshal Harris was among those who came out to greet the last crew to land. Bomber Command wanted a bomb damage assessment as soon as possible and the CO of Squadron was informed of the estimated time of the attacks. On flying closer, I saw that what had seemed to be cloud was the sun shining on the floodwaters.
I looked down into the deep valley which had seemed so peaceful three days before but now it was a wide torrent. The whole valley of the river was inundated with only patches of high ground and the tops of trees and church steeples showing above the flood. I was overcome by the immensity of it. Three aircrew from Hopgood's aircraft parachuted but one later died from wounds and the others were captured. A crewman in Ottley's aircraft survived its crash.
Who were the Dambusters and how did they use their bouncing bombs in WWII?
In total, therefore, 53 of the aircrew who participated in the attack were killed , a casualty rate of almost 40 percent. Initial German casualty estimates from the floods were 1, killed, including French, Belgian, Dutch and Ukrainian prisoners of war and labourers. After a public relations tour of America, and time spent working in the Air Ministry in London writing the book published as Enemy Coast Ahead , Gibson returned to operations and was killed on a Mosquito operation in Following the Dams Raid, Squadron was kept together as a specialist unit.
The motto having been chosen by King George VI , the latter was finally deemed acceptable.